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Come nella serie madre, Skam Italia tratta della vita giornaliera di alcuni studenti di un liceo di Romae, inoltre, sul sito web ufficiale vengono rilasciate quotidianamente delle clip che compongono un episodio e anche alcuni messaggi dal punto di vista del jtalia della stagione. Eleonora è rappresentata come una ragazza intelligente, riservata e di sostegno per le sue amiche. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Nel corso della stagione a causa sua iniziano delle voci che riguardando Eva; il ragazzo se ne pente e cerca in tutti i modi di rimediare ma purtroppo ci sono delle conseguenze ovvero la rottura tra i suoi due migliori amici.

In altre lingue Português Modifica collegamenti. La Cineteca deve molto alla FIAF e alla generosità degli archivi, e la nostra storia è molto cambiata da quando siamo stati accolti nella federazione nel A ventidue anni di distanza, vorremmo poter rendere partecipi tutti i membri FIAF non solo dei traguardi raggiunti, ma anche delle nuove sfide.

Come già nel , il Congresso si svolge durante Il Cinema Ritrovato, che è di fatto il festival delle cineteche.

Non solo perché è organizzato da una cineteca, ma perché il programma non sarebbe possibile senza la collaborazione degli archivi di tutto il mondo. Inoltre, al centro del festival ci sono i grandi temi che attraversano le attività di una cineteca. Il successo che oggi hanno le edizioni Dvd, la partecipazione ai restauri delle grandi major statunitensi o europee, sono fenomeni dovuti al lavoro straordinario che per decenni hanno portato avanti le cineteche.

Se oggi nel mondo è possibile, persino aprendo un computer o uno smartphone, vedere le immagini dei film del passato, questa è una grande vittoria delle cineteche e della FIAF, e del lavoro che hanno compiuto a partire dagli anni Trenta. Cineteca is deeply indebted to FIAF and the generosity of international film archives. The history of our institution changed when we became part of the federation in Twenty-two years later, it is our pleasure to share our achievements and future challenges with the FIAF community.

Just like in , the congress will partly overlap with Il Cinema Ritrovato, the festival of film archives. Not only is Il Cinema Ritrovato organized by a film archive but its very programme depends on the involvement of film archives from around the world. The weeklong festival focuses on the key issues of our sector today. We firmly believe in joining the technical and theoretical spirit of our work with the pleasure of watching films at a festival that lights up screens with rare works and retrospectives of the great masters of film history.

The success of Dvd editions of restored films and the participation of major US and European film studios in restoration are the results of the extraordinary efforts of film archives over time.

Seeing images of movies of the past simply by turning on a computer or a smart phone is a significant victory for film archives, FIAF and their hard work starting from the Thirties. In this crucial time of transition, the FIAF Congress in Bologna is a compelling opportunity to investigate the resurgence of classic cinema.

The debate among international experts from five continents will allow the sharing of new challenges, strategies and future projects. At the end of the XX century the days of cinemas seemed to be numbered. Il confronto tra esperti provenienti dai cinque continenti permetterà di condividere sfide, strategie e progetti futuri. La FIAF nasce nel Con sfide ogni volta nuove in ogni differente contesto nazionale. Eppure, a parte qualche star — o forse una sola, Henri Langlois, portato alla ribalta dalla forza della nouvelle vague — tutte queste personalità altrettanto straordinarie sono spesso dimenticate.

During the second day we will make a virtual tour inside the most beautiful newly restored historic theaters around the world, where classic films find a new life and are shown to new audiences. Grand finale with The Reel Thing: for the first time in Bologna the annual appointment conceived by Grover Crisp and Michael Friend, two among the major international experts in film restoration.

A unique opportunity to share and discuss current thinking and most advanced practical examples of progress in the field of preservation and restoration. FIAF has existed since Over the course of the nearly eighty years of its history several generations of film curators and restorers have succeeded one another, each of which has been in the front line of the daily battle to safeguard our heritage.

It is a task that was never easy, because the men and women who made up the history of film archives had to construct an entire field of knowledge and develop new activities: how to preserve, how to restore, how to programme. Moreover, the challenges were new and different in each national context. And yet, with the exception of a few stars — or perhaps only one, Henri Langlois, whom the nouvelle vague brought into the limelight — these figures, each equally worthy and extraordinary, have almost all been forgotten.

For this reason, and so that our memories are not lost, we decided this year to begin remembering the most significant outstanding personalities during the Cinema Ritrovato festival. We chose to begin with key personalities who played a significant role both within their own archives and within film archiving worldwide. Difficile trovare un regista di rilievo che non abbia lavorato con il Gosfilmofond: per raccogliere informazioni, conoscere le nuove tendenze o cercare ispirazione.

Non semplice archivista ma vero artista, amava il suo lavoro e fece del suo meglio per essere autorevole e imprevedibile. Fu spesso criticato, a volte perfino odiato.

Peter Bagrov. Vladimir Dmitriev never was the official head of Gosfilmofond, yet for almost half a century he determined the politics of the Russian film archive. For a country with strong ideological control over art and limited distribution of foreign films, Gosfilmofond was a window on the wider world of cinema. It is hard to name an important filmmaker who did not work with Gosfilmofond: gathering information, getting familiar with the new trends and searching for inspiration.

Thus Dmitriev became the one who granted or did not grant access to world cinema to those who would eventually influence it. Later, he had a more complicated and ethically difficult mission: saving the entire collection after the collapse of the Soviet Union when many of the former republics were eager to get their national share.

Not just an archivist, but a true artist — he enjoyed his role and did his best to impress and surprise. He was often criticized, sometimes even hated, but now that he is gone he is just deeply missed. He did so first and foremost as Director-Programmer and later through other public roles including his work at the C.

Gulbenkian Foundation, as a teacher, writer, television presenter and cultural commen-. José Manuel Costa. I suoi primi lavori consisteranno nella salvaguardia di La Roue, Napoleon, dei film Lumière in collaborazione con i laboratori Boyer, dal al e naturalmente della filmografia di Jean Epstein.

Emilie Cauquy e Marie Frappat. Of the three, she would have been Lachesis who measured the thread on the spindle, given the immediate similarity with her Moritone flatbed editor. Langlois handed the technical department over to her: she was in charge of the inventory and most preservation work until , leaving the position in after training Renée Lichtig. Part of the team was dedicated to creating an important network of donors and a committee of historical research collecting vital testimony of early film.

Emilie Cauquy and Marie Frappat. Jacques Ledoux fu uno dei pionieri degli archivi cinematografici, e come i suoi colleghi delle cineteche di Parigi, Londra e New York fu una figura leggendaria. La sua competenza e il suo amore per il cinema erano profondamente eclettici, spaziando dal cinema muto a quello sperimentale. Una delle due sale cinematografiche di Bruxelles era dedicata esclusivamente alla proiezione di film muti.

Nicola Mazzanti. Jacques Ledoux was one of the pioneers of film archives, and like his colleagues in Paris, London or New York, he was a legendary personality. Under his direction the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique — now Cinematek — was one of the most advanced in the fields of archiving, restoring and also screening films. His knowledge and love for cinema was very eclectic, ranging from silent movies to experimental works.

One of the two movie theaters in Brussels was dedicated to silent movies only. He was also the curator of the Exprmtl festival in Knokke, which is still considered a landmark in the history of avant-garde and experimental movies, The filmmaker and writer Eric de Kuyper — who was also deputy director of the Nederlands Filmmuseum, now Eye — knew Ledoux personally very well and developed a friendship with him during the s and 70s. Nicola Mazzanti Fu anche, insieme a Henri Langlois della Cinémathèque française, uno dei veri pionieri del movimento cinetecario.

Il suo nome è stato relativamente dimenticato, forse anche perché Lindgren era meno interessato alla propria immagine del suo omologo francese. Christophe Dupin. He was also, alongside Henri Langlois of the Cinémathèque française, one of the true pioneers of the film archive movement.

The two men, who dominated debate within the growing FIAF community in the post-war period, had conflicting temperaments and diametrically opposed views on what the priorities of a film archive should be although today many in the film heritage sector see those views as complementary. Lindgren, the quieter and more phlegmatic of the two figures, introduced to the FIAF community a number of defining techniques and strategies of acquisition, preservation and cataloguing of films still largely embraced by film archives around the world today.

Perhaps because he was less interested in creating his own legend than his French counterpart, his name is relatively overlooked today. This presentation intends to redress that imbalance a little by paying tribute to his immense contribution to the film archive movement.

Vide i suoi primi film steso sul pavimento coperto di sabbia bianca di un cinema a Trivandrum. Divenne un archivista cinematografico leggendario.

Pochi sanno che in India furono realizzati ben film muti. Di questi sono sopravvissuti solo cinque o sei esemplari completi e pochi frammenti, amorevolmente raccolti da Nair durante i suoi viaggi negli angoli più remoti del Paese alla ricerca di pellicole rare. È merito suo se oggi Dadasaheb Phalke è considerato il padre del cinema indiano.

Nair non fu solo il fondatore del National Film Archive, ma un museo del cinema vivente. È una figura assolutamente unica. Shivendra Singh Dungarpur. He watched his first few films lying on the white sand floor of a cinema in Trivandrum. He was a collector even then He grew up to be a legendary film archivist.

Few are aware that silent films were made in India of which only five or six complete films and a few fragments survive thanks to the efforts of Nair. He travelled to remote parts of India to collect and save cans of rare films.

He was truly democratic as an archivist trying to save any film that he could get his hands on, be it world cinema, Hindi popular films or regional Indian cinema. In the era before Dvds and the internet, he introduced students to the world of cinema and gifted them with the opportunity to watch films that otherwise they might never have had the chance to see. Nair was not just the founder of the National Film Archive, but a living, breathing museum of cinema.

The fact that India has a cinematic heritage at all is the singlehanded achievement of this man.

There will be no one like him again. Poco attratto dalla teoria, Paulo Emilio Sales Gomes adotta un approccio storico e sviluppa le sue riflessioni a partire dai film e dagli archivi dei cineasti. Come Henri Langlois in Francia, si batte incessantemente nella Cineteca brasiliana per la conservazione e la diffusione dei film.

Sales Gomes dà in particolare un contributo decisivo alla nascita del Cinema Novo, sia come maître à penser che come sostegno attivo della nuova generazione.

Rayman 1 – RayWiki, il wiki di Rayman

Adilson Mendes. Born into a middle-class family, young Sales Gomes was first involved politically before becoming a film critic and historian in the s. Like Henri Langlois in France, he strove for the preservation and dissemination of films within the Cinemateca Brasileira.

Sales Gomes made an important contribution to the creation of Cinema Novo as both a guru and active supporter of the new generation. Though his activity and influence on Brazilian cinema may be much vaster than his writings, his written work is nonetheless considerable. Che i Lumière abbiano inventato il cinema lo sappiamo tutti. E il cinema in 3D? I Lumière non si accontentarono di inventare il cinema, ma ne furono anche i primi autori.

La bellezza di questi film lascia stupefatti. Neppure lo statunitense e inventore Edison poteva lottare di fronte a una tale predestinazione patronimica.

This year, Cinema Ritrovato is thirty-years-old. The exhibition was established and curated by Thierry Frémaux and is based on the collections of the Institut Lumière in Lyon, which he directs; it was first launched last spring at the Grand Palais in Paris on the occasion of the th anniversary of the birth of cinema. The exhibition is a real discovery, even for those within the profession. We all know that the Lumière invented the cinema. But many do not know that, before coming up with the idea for the Cinématographe in a single night, Louis Lumière had already revolutionised photography by inventing the automatic photograph at the age of Nor do they know that, a few years after kick-starting the modern history of animated images, he invented colour photography.

And degree projection. And cinema in 3D. But perhaps the real discovery of this exhibition is another. Here you can participate in a 4K restoration of the first screening in the history of cinema, the celebrated evening of the 28th December at the Salon Indien on Boulevard des Capucines.

You can also view the films produced between and by the Société Lumière et fils in their entirety as part of a large installation. Through these events, the exhibition allows us to understand something else: the Lumière brothers were not content with being the inventors of the cinema; they also became its first authors.

From the very first film, the Sortie des Usines Lumière, their complete understanding of framing is clearly in evidence and remains so in each of the following plus views, even though they were shot by different cameramen. The beauty of these films is amazing. The Lumière were able to give us an image of people and the world that is both positive and joyous and the many happy images depicting their family are nothing less than the anticipation of the happiness which they believed was about to overtake the world and towards which they actively worked with their continuous inventions.

Not even the American inventor Edison could fight against such patronymic predestination. E se è vero che non ci riuscirono è anche perché questo valore era troppo grande per restare ingabbiato in una schermaglia di brevetti.

Buone visioni! These words have become legendary, but they are often quoted out of context. Having immediately grasped the value of their invention, the Lumière developed this strategy to attempt to ward of potential competition before it even had the chance to get off the ground.

If they failed to do so, it is only because the value of their invention was too great to remain trapped in a web of patents. Once experienced, the viewing of a film on the big screen in the company of others was a point of no return for spectators throughout the world.

Happy viewing! Henri e Andrée Lumière in spiaggia con la madre Marguerite Winckler. La Ciotat, le Clos-des-Plages, ca. Il cinema funziona a pieno regime, e il suo successo popolare è ovunque immediato.

Per questo primo anno, i fratelli Lumière non vendono il loro portentoso Cinématographe, obbligando i concorrenti a usare altri tipi di cineprese. Méliès comincia a produrre e proiettare film nella primavera del — con un Theatrograph messo a punto da Robert William Paul. In autunno la American Mutoscope Company lancia il suo Biograph e dà avvio a una ragguardevole produzione, in formato 68mm.

La loro qualità varia dal notevole al mozzafiato. La collezione Olivier AuboinVermorel nella sezione Ritrovati e restaurati , con le sue rare vedute Lumière colorate a mano e i filmati realizzati nel da Paul Nadar, offre un prezioso complemento alla sezione.

When the year began, Louis Lumière had made ten views, and animated photographs had been screened and seen in public in one place on earth, Paris. At the end of the year, there were over three hundred Lumière views, the company employed several operator filming in all five continents on December 30, , Constant Girel was busy in Saigon and on his way to Japan , and enthusiastic audiences had attended public screenings all over Europe, in Mexico, the US and Algeria. Motion pictures finally worked, and their success was immediate.

The Lumière brothers did not sell their wondrous Cinématographe that year, forcing rivals to use other types of cameras. Méliès started to make and show films in the spring of using a Theatrograph manufactured by Robert William Paul. In autumn, the American Mutoscope Company launched their Biograph and embarked on a remarkable production using a 68mm format.

Their quality ranges from impressive to breathtaking. Being of a double nature — historical documents and works of art — they bring into play both knowledge, the necessity to learn about the past, and esthetic experience, the capacity to understand them in the present. Much research has been done since , when Georges Sadoul asked Louis Lumière questions about the past; great minds have attempted to explain or at least describe the force of these films, their light, richness and beauty, the way they captured life and opened our imagination.

As for format, our programs follow the historical template of , when a show usually included eight to twelve titles. The collection Olivier Auboin-Vermorel presents in Recovered and Restored with rare hand-colored views Lumière and films shot in by Paul Nadar is the perfect complement to this section. Our warmest thanks go to the Institut Lumière in Lyon, to the CNC — Archives françaises du film, to the Cinémathèque française and to many colleagues and friends for their generous help.

Mariann Lewinsky. Un film Lumière è costituito da una pellicola di celluloide lunga 17 metri, larga 35mm e della durata di circa cinquanta secondi. Negli anni Sessanta-Settanta, il collezionista di Lione Paul Génard ha messo insieme a sua volta un bel numero di film.

Una seconda è in corso dal e la curatrice Béatrice de Pastre, ha indicato in il numero esatto di film prodotti direttamente dalla Sociéte Lumière. Nel è stato deciso che nel , in occasione dei anni dalla nascita del Cinématographe, circa film Lumière sarebbero stati restaurati in 4K a partire da elementi negativi Questo restauro ha portato alla stampa di un nuovo negativo, di copie 35mm e di un DCP permettendo ai film di poter essere proiettati sugli schermi di tutto il mondo.

Thierry Frémaux A Lumière film is composed of a strip of celluloid 17 meters long and 35mm wide lasting about fifty seconds. In this way it is still possible today to recognise a film shot with an original Cinématographe.

In he deposited it in the Cinémathèque française. In the Sixties and Seventies a collector in Lyon, Paul Génard, in turn compiled a good number of films. A second attempt has been underway since and the curator, Béatrice de Pastre, has indicated that the Societé Lumière was directly responsible for producing 1, films.

In , on the occasion of the first edition of the Lumière festival, the Lumière Institute, in collaboration with the CNC and the Cineteca di Bologna, undertook a digital restoration in 2K. This restoration led to the printing of a new negative, 35mm copies and a DCP, allowing the films to be projected on screens around the world. Thierry Frémaux. Le Débarquement du congrès de photographie à Lyon fuori catalogo n.

Macchine e strumenti meccanici sono stati creati con finalità pratiche, ma non appena prendono a muoversi diventano una visione affascinante, un intrattenimento meraviglioso. Fino al , tutte sfuggono a qualsiasi forma di rappresentazione. La scultura, la pittura, la fotografia tentano di evocare il movimento, ma solo il Cinématographe riesce a riprodurlo in modo convincente anche se illusorio. Le fotografie proiettate sembrano animarsi, muoversi. Nel Mariann Lewinsky We are visual animals, and moving objects arrest and delight us to no end — the natural elements to begin with, waves, clouds, fire.

We ourselves are restless and watching animals, dancers, fountains, following and losing ourselves in the rhythm, variations and patterns of their movements, soothes and distracts us. Mechanical devices and machines may have been created initially for practical uses, but as soon as they move they become fascinating visual displays, wonderfully entertaining.

Many forms of art and entertainment are based on movement, be it dances, jugglers, fountains, pageants and the like. Until they defied all forms of representation. The projected photographs appear to be moving. In cinematography was all about the spectacle of movement, flaunting this unique capacity.

No interest in still-life, then; we want the lion in the zoo to be animated, not asleep. Mariann Lewinsky Aquarium n. Mariann Lewinsky The power of these films comes from their beauty and one of the aspects of their beauty is the creation — a masterly, essential creation — of dimensionality through movements. Create the perception of center, depth, vertical, horizontal.

On September 21, the operator Constant Girel got into a boat and filmed the city of Cologne, located on the banks of the Rhine. Mariann Lewinsky Cuirassiers: en fourrageurs charge n. Si comportano in modi diversi e diversamente a seconda dei singoli spettatori. Davvero siamo ammessi alla visione del passato, in scorci fugaci Mariann Lewinsky As material objects, these Lumière views are a homogeneous batch.

Our screenings take place in , and the 35mm prints screened here were made twenty years ago, in , via intermediary elements, struck from negatives that were exposed and developed in , a hundred and twenty years ago.

What appears today on the screen happened to be in front of a Lumière Cinématographe a hundred and twenty years ago. During their screenings, however, the views do not all stay there, in ; they behave in many different ways and individually with different viewers. A flag flying, for example, crosses over easily and. The uncanny magic of time in these very early films is overwhelming. How is it possible that we should be permitted to see the past, in 50 second glimpses.

Mariann Lewinsky Port de la Joliette n. Les Souverains et les invités se rendant au sacre escalier rouge n. Chiunque diventa un protagonista, un attore. Le vedute Lumière compongono una. Le scene catturate dal Cinématographe sembrano oggi coreografie naturali a un pubblico non più abituato a praticare né a vedere simili forme di lavoro. Mariann Lewinsky You turn the handle a few times and your machine transforms a pig into appetizing sausages. You turn the handle a few times, and your Cinématographe transforms whatever it films into a spectacular appearance, endowing everything with meaning, mystery and glamour.

Everybody becomes a protagonist, a performer.

This effect is less noticeable in performances such as music-hall numbers and in family films where people put on little shows for the benefit of the camera and is at its strongest in apparently unarranged scenes of play or work, such as Bassin des Tuileries, Chargement du Coke and Mauvaises herbes. The views Lumière form an amazing documentation of work, much of it collective and unmechanized, done by groups of men, women and animals in orchestrated movements.

Captured by the Cinématographe they appear as effortless choreographies when screened now in front of audiences no longer familiar with such kind of work and the sight of it. Mariann Lewinsky Cyclistes et cavaliers arrivant au cottage n. Come critico si è fatto conoscere e apprezzare per i numerosi scritti su autori e attori del cinema italiano e non solo. Chiunque voglia scrivere o occuparsi di cinema italiano da un punto di vista scientifico deve obbligatoriamente rivolgersi a Bernardini o utilizzare gli strumenti di ricerca da lui elaborati.

È stato uno dei primi in Europa che, per stilare una storia del cinema, ha fondato le sue ricerche sui documenti e i materiali provenienti dal Ministero e dalle case di produzione.

Siamo dunque lieti e onorati di annunciare che Aldo Bernardini ha deciso di donare alla Cineteca di Bologna il suo archivio personale. La Cineteca già possiede il fondo Vittorio Martinelli e potrà dunque vantare nel suo patrimonio gli archivi di questa grande coppia di storici del cinema italiano. Gian Luca Farinelli Il film che avrebbe aperto in modo ideale questo programma è perduto. La festa inaugurale del monumento a Marco Minghetti è il primo film girato a Bologna, il 28 giugno , e il primo ad apparire su uno schermo bolognese, il 27 agosto Lo storico Aldo Bernardini ne ha trovato le tracce una proiezione del 19 luglio , a Genova e ne dà notizia nel suo monumentale e meticoloso Il cinema muto italiano.

I Lumière, padre e fratelli, chiaramente sapevano come si mette insieme un buon programma. La seconda parte del nostro replica una storica proiezione che ebbe luogo a Torino dal 20 al 26 dicembre. Nel finale, Le Serpent, appare Félicien Trewey, artista della scena allora famoso in tutto il mondo e amico della famiglia Lumière.

Aldo Bernardini has two parallel, but closely linked, lives: that of a film critic and that of an Italian cinema historian. As a critic he became known and appreciated for his many writings on actors and filmmakers from both Italian cinema and beyond. For several years he was also secretary of the Italian film critics union.

Episodi di One Piece (diciannovesima stagione) – Wikipedia

As a historian, in he was one of the founders of the pioneering Associazione Italiana per le Ricerche di Storia del Cinema, the oldest film history research association in the world, which took over from the historical conference that previously took place at the Venice Film Festival. Anyone who wants to write about or work with Italian cinema employing a scientific approach must inevitably turn to Bernardini or make use of the research tools he developed.

Despite operating outside of academia as a free agent, Bernardini managed to lay the historiographic foundations for the study of Italian cinema. He was one of the first in Europe who, in order to compile a history of Italian cinema, based his research on documents and materials deriving from the Ministry and production companies.

An extraordinary task animated by a deep desire to be systematic, which fed into the essential database compiled for Anica.

We are both happy and honoured to announce that Aldo Bernardini has decided to donate his personal archive to the Cineteca di Bologna, which already houses the Vittorio Martinelli collection.

The Cineteca can therefore be proud of now housing the archives of these two great Italian film historians. Gian Luca Farinelli The ideal film to open this programme is lost. La festa inaugurale del monumento a Marco Minghetti was the first film ever shot in Bologna, on June 28, ,. Film historian Aldo Bernardini found its trace a screening on July 19, , in Genova and put it on record in his monumental, meticulously researched Il cinema muto italiano.

To continue with first times, Levée de filets de pêche seems to be the first film shot abroad ever to be screened back in France, in Lyon, on March 8, , and Bains de Diane became one of the first popular successes of cinematography. It was usually shown twice, the second time backwards, transformed into a surreal trick film with people jumping vertically out of the water up to the diving board, a comic highlight to end the show.

Lumière père and frères and their representatives obviously knew about pro-. The second part of our programme follows a historical screening in Turin daily from December 20 to 26, Its finale, Le Serpent, stars the then world-famous performer Félicien Trewey, a close friend of the Lumière family. In secondo luogo il tempo di formazione è grandemente ridotto. La mancanza di personale è diventata un problema del passato.

This was conducted in-house with a fulltime trainer, recruited from the United States and was planned to last three years. In the event, it frequently lasted longer and the results were not such that it was felt to be worth continuing.

In addition, and as a aside, it was found that our style of parliamentary reporting was not best suited to the real-time facilities offered by CAT. While our attempts to recruit reporters were continuing we had been running in parallel a committee reporting system using tape recordings from which reports were produced by teams of transcribers. This had begun some time in the s, when the number of committees became too great for our reporting staff to cope with.

The results have been excellent. A decision was taken to do away with shorthand reporting — a difficult decision but one that has been proved to be correct. All recruitment to the reporting staff begins with the trainee reporter who begins work, under supervision, in the committee reporting section. Thereafter progress to the House reporting section is possible, depending upon proficiency and available places. House reporters — other than those of long standing who have always used shorthand — now go into the chamber armed with a notebook in which they make any relevant notes during their turn of five or ten minutes.

They then return to their workstation, where a tape has been running covering the period of their turn. They then transcribe the turn. There are a number of advantages to this scheme.

First, there is a coherent reporting staff, with no divisions as between committees and House. Previously transcribers had reason to feel that they were denied access to House reporting and an improved career path.

Secondly, the training period is greatly reduced. Once typing skills are achieved a period of about three months is sufficient to determine whether a staff member will make the grade as a reporter. Thereafter it is a question of continuous training on the job in a team that boasts a number of experienced committee reporters. Staff shortages have become a thing of the past. Ora la collega Anne Grete ci parlerà su come assicurare la qualità dei resoconti Parlamentari.

Thanks Peter for your important contribution. Now our collegue Anne Grete will talk us on securing the quality in Parliamentary reports. Premessa Durante i congressi di Intersteno, nel corso degli anni, abbiamo visto molti esempi di come le tecniche siano migliorate. Abbiamo visto come Internet sia divenuto un mezzo da tenere in considerazione, abbiamo visto esempi di riconoscimento del parlato e di resocontazione computerizzata.

A mio avviso, questa è la più importante parte del nostro lavoro. Background During the Intersteno congresses throughout the years we have seen many examples of how the techniques have improved. We have seen how Internet has become something to be reckoned with; we have seen examples of speech recognition and of computerised reporting. And in my opinion this is the most important part of our job.

So you understand: This is not going to be very much about new techniques and computers; it is not going to be about shorthand or not shorthand; but it is going to be about other problems which the reporter meets during the working-out of a report. What I am going to say reflects the situation in Norway and the way we work. The traditions may be different from one parliament to the other, and the problems we have, may be very different from the ones you have.

Many things may sound unfamiliar to you, and I shall go into a lot of details about our work that may be boring to you, but I hope it can be of some interest. Nel Dipartimento di informazione e documentazione di Stortinget il parlamento norvegese , nel quale è incorporato il Servizio Stenografico, abbiamo avuto discussioni su questo tema negli ultimi due anni.

Abbiamo prima di tutto dovuto chiederci: perché siamo qui, perché dobbiamo fare i resoconti, e per chi li facciamo?

Nel nostro caso noi troviamo la base legale per il nostro lavoro nella stessa Costituzione norvegese, dove si stabilisce che quello che viene detto nelle riunioni dello Stortinget, deve essere reso pubblico tramite stampa. Ognuno deve avere la possibilità di essere informato di quanto succede in parlamento.

And in the Information and Documentation department of Stortinget the Norwegian parliament , where The Stenographic Service belongs, we have had discussions on this topic for the last couple of years. What does quality securing mean to the work we do, how do we define quality, and how do we go about securing it? First of all we had to ask ourselves: Why are we here, why do we have to make the reports, and whom do we make the reports for?

In our case we find the legal basis for our work in the Norwegian Constitution itself, where it is stated that what is said in meetings in Stortinget, shall be made public through printing. Everybody shall have the opportunity to be informed about what goes on in the parliament. On a more long-term basis the reports are essential Nel lungo periodo i resoconti sono essenziali per la storia. I resoconti divengono documenti storici. Vediamo quindi che non soltanto i giornalisti sono interessati a quello che è stato detto, anche se sono i giornalisti che entrano in scena al termine di un dibattito.

I Parlamentari sono ansiosi di avere presentato nei media quello che loro dicono, ed i giornalisti non sono sempre seduti tutto il giorno ad ascoltare i dibattiti. Penso che questi concetti siano importanti per avere il quadro del lavoro che noi resocontisti svolgiamo. The reports become historical documents.

They are frequently used by lawyers and solicitors who want to study the preparatory work behind the laws; they are made use of by historians and scientists who want to study former politics and the development of the language, what words and expressions that are popular at different times, and so on.

So we see that it is not only journalists who are interested in what has been said, even though it is the journalists who are on the arena immediately after a debate is over. I think these things are important to have as a background for the work we do as reporters.

I shall now mainly talk about the working-out and preparation of the report itself. When the reporter comes from the plenary hall to her office and starts writing, there are three main principles she has to bear in mind: 1. To write exactly what the speaker has said — verbatim — sounds very simple. It is, however, not always that simple. Very often there is a great difference between the spoken and the written language.

Not all the Members of parliament command the language equally well, and in such cases we must try to help them. We must try to bring forth what we think the speaker has meant, without changing too much what he has said. Besides: The speaker does not always have clearly in his mind what he shall say when he starts to speak, which results in many incoherent, abrupt and fragmentary sentences, he stumbles in the words, searches for the right expression and does not always find it.

He mixes terms and expressions. And it is not always easy to grasp, to understand, what words that are used — many dialects are very demanding to interpret. We also have to take care if the speaker uses the wrong word and it is quite clear to everybody who listens that it is a misreading or a mispronunciation.

Non tutti i Parlamentari padroneggiano ugualmente bene la lingua, ed in questi casi noi dobbiamo cercare di aiutarli. Mescola termini ed espressioni. E non è sempre facile afferrare, capire le parole che sono usate — molti dialetti sono molto impegnativi da interpretare.

Da noi ci sono dei Parlamentari che godono moltissimo nel fare scherzi sugli errori di altre persone. Grammar, semantics etc. This has to do with the building up of a sentence, with making sure that the sentences contain a subject and a predicate etc. We have to take care if there are many adverbials, subordinate clauses and appositions, that the sentence is made.

La grammatica, la semantica ecc. Questo punto riguarda la costruzione della frase, dobbiamo assicuraci che le frasi contengano un sogget Dobbiamo verificare se ci sono troppi avverbi, frasi subordinate ed apposizioni e che la frase sia sintatticamente e semanticamente completa. Dobbiamo prenderci cura che, per esempio, un pronome sia messo nella frase in modo che indichi esattamente quello che si voleva indicare.

La punteggiatura corretta è importante - una virgola in più o una virgola mancante, possono dar luogo a due significati diversi. Le due lingue sono in vario modo simili, e molti parlamentari parlano con un misto di entrambe, ma le parole devono essere scritte in modi diversi, perché le costruzioni delle frasi sono diverse; le terminazioni dei verbi, nomi ed aggettivi sono diverse, e frequentemente molte parole usate nei documenti dai ministeri non sono permesse nel Nuovo norvegese.

Fare resoconti in Nuovo norvegese è specialmente una sfida ed un lavoro che comporta molto tempo. Non tutti i resocontisti sono a loro agio col Nuovo norvegese, ma devono fare del loro meglio.

Per esempio: alcuni nomi possono essere sia maschili che femminili, e noi dobbiamo scoprire quello che si accorda di più con il modo di parlare del Parlamentare e dei suoi desideri.

We have to take care that for instance a pronoun is placed in the sentence in such a way that it points to what it is meant to point to. Correct punctuation is important — a comma or not a comma can give two different meanings. Therefore it is important also to know something about the subject which is discussed, and we need to have at hand the recommendation from the committee and preferably to have read through at least parts of it in order to know what attitude the different parties take in the matter.

Besides; something which I suppose is special for Norway: We have two Norwegian languages, Norwegian and New Norwegian, and the Members must choose which one they want to be used for reporting their speeches.

The two languages are in many ways similar, and many Members speak a mixture of both, but the words have to be written in different ways, the ways to build a sentence are different, the inflectional endings of verbs and nouns and adjectives are different, and many words frequently used in the documents from the ministries are not allowed in the written New Norwegian language. To make reports in New Norwegian especially is a challenge and a time consuming task.

Not all the reporters are equally comfortable with the New Norwegian, but they have to do their best. As to orthography we intend to let the official report reflect what are at any time the official, accepted forms. But within each of the two Norwegian languages there may be alternatives as regards inflectional endings, both of nouns and of verbs, which again reflects different levels of conservatism of language. And to complicate it all: The Members themselves are not consequent in their use of forms, and we have to find some kind of scarlet thread.

The intention is that if a Member quotes from a given document or newspaper we shall trust that both the quotation and the source is correct.

Shall we trust that what the Member quotes, is correct? We experience from time to time incorrect quotations, but we choose to think that those are unintentional. The reason may be that the Members let other people prepare the speeches for them, and those people are not always very accurate when it comes to quoting correctly word by word, or by giving the correct name of i.

If a manuscript has been through several stages before read by the Member, misunderstandings may occur — something is changed, something is added etc. All this checking of quotations and of names takes time.

If the Member does not mention that what he quotes is from an on-line newspaper, we may spend a lot of time searching in vain for the quotation. It is difficult to know where to start.

Dobbiamo aver fiducia che quello che cita il Parlamentare sia esatto? Se un manoscritto è passato per diversi stadi prima che venga letto dal Parlamentare, possono capitare dei malintesi — qualche cosa è cambiato, qualche cosa è aggiunto ecc.

Tutta questa verifica delle citazioni e dei nomi richiede tempo. Se il Parlamentare non indica che la sua citazione è presa da un. Well, this is what the reporter has to deal with. What the reporter writes is the basic report. And this È difficile sapere da dove cominciare. In addition to the reporter we have the reviser. The reviser collects the turns from several reporters and can see the totality of the debate and therefore also has the opportunity to discover discrepancies in the reports.

My main task is to study the more formal parts and make sure that they are correct. This is especially important when it comes to voting. We take into the report all proposals that are voted over — I know this is different in many other parliaments — and it is essential that these are correct. When dealing with the budget we have long and complicated columns of numbers and figures which have to be included in the report.

When I have finished my job, all the corrections are put into the computer version of the preliminary report, and we make the report available on Internet — normally the next day — and before we send it to the printing office outside of parliament. And then we have the proof readers, who receive the proof sheets from the printing office and go through the report once more.

They discover mistakes and errors that have been overlooked in the previous process, see to it that the columns are properly designed, that a long word is divided in the right place before a new line, they make column titles for each page that corresponds to the issue that is discussed, make table of contents and index of the speakers before the report is printed and published in numbers in small booklets.

This final, official version is then made available on Internet and replaces the first version. This was a long list of details. We would like to have some of you present your views on this matter, and I am very interested to know if it is only we who have such a complicated job with the reports, or whether any of you can identify yourself with this way of working. I know the traditions are different, and the languages are different. And I know that Norwegian is not an easy language — I feel sorry for those foreigners who have to learn it — but it is the best we have!

Thank you for your attention! Quello che scrive il resocontista è il resoconto di base. Oltre al reporter noi abbiamo il revisore. Io non li leggo tutti. Il mio compito principale è studiare le parti più formali ed assicurare che siano esatte. Questo è specialmente importante quando si arriva alla votazione.

Noi mettiamo nel resoconto tutte le proposte di voto - so che questo in molti altri parlamenti avviene in modo diverso — ed è essenziale che siano esatte. Quando si tratta del bilancio abbiamo molte colonne complicate di numeri e cifre che devono essere incluse nel resoconto.

Quando ho finito il mio lavoro, tutte le correzioni vengono inserite nella versione a computer del resoconto preliminare, e la rendiamo disponibile in Internet — di norma il giorno successivo — e prima di spedirlo alla tipografia che si trova fuori dal Parlamento. Successivamente intervengono i correttori di bozze, che ricevono le bozze dalla tipografia e che li rivedono una volta ancora. Questa versione finale viene poi resa disponibile in Internet e sostituisce la prima versione.

Questo era un lungo elenco di dettagli. So che le tradizioni sono diverse, e le lingue sono diverse. Ed io so che il norvegese non è una lingua facile — sono spiacente per gli stranieri che devono impararla — ma è il meglio che abbiamo! Grazie per la vostra attenzione! Tuttavia, chiunque abbia letto qualche prodotto di altri reparti del parlamento — od anche gli sforzi nelle comunicazioni scritte di molte organizzazioni — si rende conto che le persone coinvolte hanno una ridotta simpatia con la lingua e la sua comprensione.

Per questo motivo è vitale che chi è addetto alla resocontazione ufficiale, debba resistere a qualunque tentativo di risparmiare denaro tagliando le procedure previste, per assicurare il più possibile un miglior resoconto parlamentare. I very much agree that the maintenance of reporting standards is not something that can be left to those in the parliament who are not directly concerned with the production of the official report. However, anyone who has had to read some of the products of other parliamentary departments — or indeed the attempts at written communication from a wide variety of organisations — realises that those involved have precious little sympathy with or understanding of the language.

For this reason it is vital that those in the official report should resist any attempt to save money by cutting back on procedures designed to ensure the finest possible parliamentary report. Tutto questo infatti è stato concepito soprattutto come alternativa alla scrittura ordinaria, da utilizzarsi per le esigenze quotidiane più comuni, di studio e di lavoro.

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I computer, le macchine stenografiche e le loro applicazioni rappresentano infatti qualcosa di assolutamente nuovo. In questo senso è da ricordare un importante studio condotto da Flaviano Rodriguez sulla frequenza delle parole della lingua italiana, realizzata su 2 milioni di parole contenute in testi resocontati in ambiente assem-. Gli uomini, è stato detto, hanno sempre desiderato lasciare un segno delle loro presenze.

Diese Funktionen kamen schon in einem anderen sprachlichen Umfeld, im engeren Sinn vor, aber eben deswegen kann ich nincht umhin, sie im Zusammenhang der angewandten Lunguistik und der muttersprachlichen Erziehung zu definieren. Mein Untergangen ist nicht ohne Präzedenz, denn viele Theoretiker der ungarischen Stenographie nahmen sich der Beziehungen zwischen Sprache und Stenographie an.

Die Systemschaffender der Stenographie hatten ihr Stenographiesystem unter Berücksichtigung der Eigenschaften unserer Sprache ausgearbeitet, dann die Ergebnisse der linguistischnen Forschungen einbeziehend gefeilt und vervollkommnet.

Stenographen mit hervorragenden Kenntnissen dienten mit Sprachstatistiken der Weiterenwicklung der Stenographie. Zahlreiche Artikel erschienen aus der Feder praktizierender Pädagogen über ihre spezifische Roll ebeim Festsetzen der Sprache, über die Konzentrationsmöglichkeiten mit dem Fach ungarische Sprache. Die meisten Studierenden äusserten sich über die Beziehungen der Stenographie zur Rechtsschreibung. Die Stenographie, eine spezifische Form, ein spezielles Schreibsystem der Kommunikation passt sich der Eigenart der ungarischen Sprache an, so kann der Prozess des Lehrens und des Lernens der Stenographie eine umfassende muttersprachliche Erziehung verwirklichen.

Ihre Nützlichkeit in der menschlichen Kommunikation wird dadurch belegt, dass der sprachlichen Äusserung in kurzer Zeit deren visuelle Darstellung folgt, d. Mit diesem Thema begann ich mich vor etwa zwanzig Jahren zu beschäftigen. Am Anfang untersuchte ich die Beziehungen zu der Rechtsschreibung, der Sprachkultivierung, später die immer neueren Bezüglichkeiten, schliesslich, nach dem ich die jüngsten Ergebnisse der linguistischen Forschungen kennen gelernt habe, führte ich meine Untersuchungen in der Ganzheit der muttersprachlichen Erziehung durch.

Ziel und Aufgabe der Stenographie jenseits der traditionellen Definitionen ist, dass a als das Schreiben im Allgemeinen macht sie das sich verflüchtigende Wort durch Sehimpulse begreiflich und jederzeit reproduzierbar, b als ein sich auf das System der Muttersprache stützendes Schreibsystem veranlasst sie einen im Lern Aus dem dreifachen Ziel- uns Aufgabensystem der Stenographie möchte ich detailliert erläutern, wie die muttersprachlichen Fähigkeiten zu verbessern, die muttersprachlichen Kenntnisse zu erweitern sind, und wie es zur aktiven Sprachbildung führt.

Die Stenographie als Schreibsystem stellt sich organisch in den Zug der Schreibentwicklung, -änderung. Es wird auch Kunstschrift genannt, in dem Sinne, dass es ähnlich anderen Schriftarten Braille-Schrift, Morse-Schrift, Geheimschriften für eine spezielle Aufgabe entwickelt wurde.

Die Buchstabenschrift, nach Piktographie, Ideographie, Wort- und Silbenschrift, bezeichnet nicht die Gegenstände der Welt, sondern die Lautreihen, mit denen die Sprache auf sie hinweist.

Die natürlichen Schriften stimmen darin überein, dass sie Lautschriften sint phonetisch oder phonematisch , sie teilen die Wörter auf Laute und bezeichnen jeden Laut mit einem eigenen Buchstaben. Die Kurzschrift ist eine kürzere Schrift als die Kurrentschrift, sie setzt die Sprache mit dem Ertönen gleichzeitig fest, so dass sie räumlich sofort überschaubare Informationen bietet.

B Wenn wir die Zeit und den Raum des Kommunikationsprozesses untersuchen, können wir feststellen, dass die Kommunikation in der Kurzschrift verschiendentlich verwirklicht wird, der Stenograph is der spezielle Teilnehmer der Kommunikation. Am Mitteilungsprozess nimmt der Sprecher als Sender, der Stenograph als Empfänger teil, und zwar als Empfänger des Sprechers und der Zuhörereschaft setzt er die Botschaften beider Partner fest: die Botschaft des Sprechers für die Zuhörerschaft, bzw.

Die Reaktion der Zuhörerschaft auf das Gesprochene. In dieser Lage funktioniert der Stenograph im gleichen Raum und in der gleichen Zeit als passiver Teilnehmer.

Soche Kommunikationsteilnehmer sind zum Beispiel die Parlamentsstenographen, deren Rolle aber mit dem Festhalten der Sprache nicht zu Ende geht, sondern sie müssen auch in der nächsten Kummunikationssituation als Teilnehmer eine Rolle spielen: 2. Diese Kommunikationssituation enthält noch einen Teilnehmer, der räumlich und zeitlich nicht anwesend ist, also setzt der Stenograph die Boschaften des Sprechers später Zuhörers und die des Zuhörers später Sprechers für die späteren Empfänger Leser fest.

In solcher Kommunikationssituation nimmt der Stenograph an den verschiedenen Konferenzen, Vorlesungen usw. Als Ergebnis seiner Tätigkeit kann die.

Mehrere Stenographen angenommen die einander abwechselnd das Gehörte notieren dann tippen kann die Übergabe der Bänder sogar am Abschlusstag der Konferenz erfolgen.

In dieser Kommunikationssituation ist auch der Stenograph neben dem Sprecher und dem Zuhörer ein aktiver Teilnehmer. Da wird der Stenograph entweder vom Sprecher oder vom Zuhörer gebeten das Gehörte aufzurufen, vorzulesen. Die Zeit in Raum verwandelnd: was vorher in der Zeit existierte, ist jetzt oben auf dem Papier. In diesen Kommunikationssituationen ist der Stenograph durch keinerlei Gerät ersetzbar. Zu der Transformation des Textes aus dem Audialen ins Visuelle ohne Zeitverlust ist die Fonaufnahme nicht geeignet, nur wenn es danach geschrieben wird, aber da geht Zeit verloren.

C Ein mit der gegebenen Sprache fest verbundenes Schreibsystem, das mit seinen besonders kurzen Zeichen und Abkürzungen geeignet ist, besonders schnell zu notieren. Jedes Kurzschriftsystem, so auch die einheitliche ungarische Stenographie hat die Sprache als einen Grund, aus dem es aufgebaut wird und seine Anwender, die Stenographen sind bewusste Sprachverbraucher.

Heute haben die meisten Sprachen eine Kurzschrift; die sogenannten modernen Kurzschriftsysteme sind Buchstabenschriften.

SCARICARE APP ZUCCHETTI

Die zwei Varienten: geometrisch und kursiv. Nach eingehendem Studium der Geschichte der Stenographie kann festgestellt werden, dass die höchste Anforderung gegenüber jedem Kurzschriftsystem die Brauchbarkeit ist, die sprachlichen Äusserungen je genauer und perfekter festsetzen zu können. Das kann sie erfüllen, wenn das Schreiben wenig Zeit beansprucht und es eindeutig und deutlich zu lesen ist. Als Kriterium der Braucbarkeit eines Systems ist es auch, dass es leicht zu lernen ist.

Für die Mehrheit der ungarischen Kurzschriftsysteme ist die Bestrebung charakteristisch, dass sie gegenüber der allgemeinen Schrift nicht bestrebt ist, für jeden Laut ein eigenes graphisches Zeichen zu schaffen, aber sie Versucht jeden Laut zu bezeichnen. Deshalb brauchte man a die sog.

Symbol-Bezeichnung: die einzelnen Laute wurden durch Modifizierung anderer Laute ausgedrückt und b Abkürzungen: Wortzeichen, die für die häufigsten Silben, Wörter, Wortgruppen gebildet wurden. Im Laufe ihrer langen Entwicklung is die Stenographie der Kürze zuliebe von der vollständigeren Buchstabenschrift manchmal zu den älteren Entwicklungsstufen der Schrift, zu der Silben- und Wortschrift zurückgekehrt, gleichzeitig wollten aber die Systemreformer dies beseitigen, konnten doch nincht auf dem Gebiet der Bezeichnung, nur bei den Abkürzungen, bzw.

Den Weglassungen verwirklichen so, dass sie sich auf die Beziehung der einzelnen Elemente der Sprache stützten. Auch deshalb sprechen wir bei den Stenographiesystemen über a Bezeichnungslehre, wo wir die graphi Die ungarische Stenographie wurde im Weiteren verbessert, vervollkommnet aber weitreichende Änderungen wurden nicht mehr vorgenommen.

Von den Reformern, die qualitative Änderungen mit sich brachten, ist Fabro Henrik hervorzuheben, der die Forschungen siner Zeit berücksichtigend am System besserte, bei seinen Neuerungen baute er auf die Phonetik, die Redewendungen, die Wiederholungen, die Gegensätze, auf die Begriffsklasse des Textes, die Assoziierung, das Thema des Textes.

Radnai Béla mechte es mit Forschungen z. Szépe, Die so erlernten ständigen Abkürzungen dienen später als Beispiel den sog. Das hat auch grossen pädagogischen Wert, das gewöhnt den Lernenden an sinnvolle Arbeit, er lernt die Zusammenhänge, Wortgefüge zu erkennen, deren Rolle in der Sprache aufmerksam zu folgen, das Wesentliche vom Unwesentlichen, den neuen Gedanken von dem Wiederholten unterscheiden, aus dem Vonangegangenen die Folgenden festzustellen, bereichert seinen Wortschatz und entwickelt seinen Stil.

Von diesen sollen nun einige aufgezählt werden: a Suffixabkürzungen, b Abkürzungen von Wörtern mit Präfix, c Abkürzungsmöglichkeiten bei Wortgefügen, d bei beigeordneten Wortzusammensetzungen, e Abkürzungen bei assoziativen Verbindungen: Verbgefüge, Redewendungen, gflügelte Worte, Sprichwörter, bekannte Zitate, Buchtitel, f Abkürzungs- und Weglassungsmöglichkeiten bei wiederholten und gegensätzlichen Begriffen, g Weglassungsmöglichkeiten von Konnektoren usw.

Natürlich kann der Stenograph eine optimale Geschwindigkeit nur erreichen, wenn er ständig mit hochster Konzentration schreibt und die Bedeutungszusammenhänge in jeder Sekunde wahrnehmen und die geeignetesten auswählen kann. Jedesmal muss er erwägen, ob irgendein Element weggelassen werden könnte, aber so, dass beim Zurücklesen der Wortlaut keinen Schaden erleidet. Die Entwicklung des Leseverstehens des schriftlichen Mitteilungsvermögens erfolgt in der Vorbereitungsphase für die Protokollführung.

Die Lernenden müssen das Wesentliche im Gesagten erkennen und dazu fähig sein, es authentisch aber kompakter aufzusetzen. Das Wesen zu betonen kann durch Zusammenfassung und Exzerpierung erfolgen, in beiden ist es gleichermassen wichtig, inhaltlich treu zu bleiben, gutes Ungarisch zu benutzen, unwesentliche Teile wegzulassen. Zussammenfassend können wir also über die muttersprachliche Erziehung in bestimmten Phasen des Stenographieunterrichts feststellen, dass im ganzen Lernprozess in erster Linie die Entwicklung der zum Schreiben nötigen Sprachkompetenzen erfolgt, aber man ergreift natürlich jede Gelegenheit, um auch das Sprechvermögen zu fördern.

Im Folgenden werden die wichtigsten Förderungsgebiete und Tätigkeiten aufgezählt ohne Anspruch auf die Vollständigkeit : a Das Lernen und der Gebrauch der Stenographie is teng mit dem Lehren der Rechtschreibung verbunden.

Die Eigenschaften des ungarischen einheitlichen Stenographiesystems a Das Strichsystem: auf den verschiedenen Stufen des Lernens Drei,- Zwei-, und Einstrichvokalisation, b Bildschrift geht von links nach rechts, Buchstabentyp in der Regel leicht rechtsneigend ca. In der Buchstabenbezeichnung werden 9 Vokalenzeichen und 23 Konsonantenzeichen gebraucht.

Die Abkürzungen kommen durch Weglassung, Vereinfachung, Subtituierung zu Stande so, dass aus dem festzusetzenden Text nur bestimmte Elemente zur Aufzeichnung geWahlt werden. Muttersprachliche Erziehung im Stenographieunterricht Die Stenographie ist immer ein bewusster Sprachgebrauch, im Unterrict können die Spracfahigkeiten entwickelt werden. Conclusione dal limite fuori non di molto! Sinistro da ottima posizione: pallone alto sopra la traversa!

Colpo di testa di Pavoletti: centrale per Cragno. Djuricic va alla conclusione, muro del Cagliari. Cragno esce dalla propria area e anticipa Coda. Lancio per Pavoletti che va giù dopo un contatto con Djimsiti: tutto regolare per l'arbitro. Gioco fermo: qualche problema per Letizia. Due punti nelle ultime quattro gare per il Cagliari. Padroni di casa su alti ritmi, ospiti con la manovra ragionata. Cross insidioso di Letizia, anticipo di Cragno su Coda.

Benevento vicinissimo al vantaggio: tiro sul montante! Metà del primo tempo, sempre 0 a 0 al "Vigorito". Contropiede dei padroni di casa, Castan chiude in corner sul cross di Brignola. Il Benevento è reduce da due sconfitte consecutive. Coda scatta a campo aperto ma è in fuorigioco. Miangue prova a colpire di testa, Sagna si oppone con il corpo in corner. Brignola si inserisce bene ma poi controlla male la sfera.

Viola controlla e calcia dal limite: sinistro largo sul fondo. Cragno evita il calcio d'angolo allungandosi in scivolata. Apertura di Guilherme per Brignola fuori misura. Tiro di Barella dal limite: Sandro devia in calcio d'angolo.